The article starts by highlighting how the existing economic framework intrinsically collides with nature conservation goals, due to massive presence of environmental externalities, and argues for the need of economic policies incentivising the provision and quality of environmental services. Section 2 presents the existing framework and initiatives for such economic policies in Catalonia, whereas section 3 introduces possible innovative instruments to foster nature conservation. Section 4 presents land stewardship as part of the green economy concept, capable to generate new jobs while preserving nature. Some case studies present ideas and tools on how nature conservation can be key to pursuing rural development goals. Section 5 addresses how an innovative communal management of lands is important for pursuing the aforementioned goals, especially for the northern parts of Catalonia where most communal lands are located.